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آیزایا برلین Isaiah Berlin يکی از جدّی‌ترين آموزگاران عصر جديد

همنشين بهار

 «هیچ نقطه ارشمیدسى وجودندارد که با تکیه بر آن بتوانیم کل واقعیت را با همه پیچیدگى هایش نظاره و تحلیل کنیم.»

آیزایا برلین Isaiah Berlin  یکی از جدّی‌ترین آموزگاران عصر جدید است که روی «رحمت اختلاف» و «حکمت‌ تکثر» انگشت می‌گذارد و اصرار دارد تفکر انسانی، بدون‌ پالایش و مراقبت روزمرّه سر از جمود و تنگ نظری در می‌آورد.

برای همه کسانی که به صبح آزادی می‌اندیشند ــ مباحثی که امثال او طرح کرده، راهگشا است. 

آیزایا برلین می‌گوید:

اگر فرهنگ ها و سلیقه‌های جورواجور واقعی است، آرمان ها و عقاید گوناگون هم واقعی است، اگر کثرت‌گرایی را فهم و باور کنیم بی‌تردید به پیامدهای آزادمنشانه و به، مدارا (‌که از زمین تا آسمان با سازش و بی مرزی تفاوت دارد) خواهیم رسید.

اگر هر که را با ما نیست گمراه و مزدور ببینیم و فقط ساز خود را بزنیم، اگر مرغ‌مان همیشه یک پا داشته باشد، با پاک‌ترین نیت ها و پسندیده‌ترین اندیشه‌ ها هم به چاله می‌افتیم.

در روزگار قدیم مردان و زنان قربانی انواع خدایان می‌شدند، روزگار مدرن‌ ما نیز خالی از بت های رنگارنگ نیست. ایجاد درد ورنج، به زندان انداختن مخالفین، قتل، شکنجه... به حق محکوم شده اما اگر همین ها در جهت بت های خود ما صورت پذیرد ــ توجیه می‌کنیم و شهامت زیر سئوال بردنش را نداریم.

بسیاری از ما علناً یا مخفیانه اعتقاد داریم که برای ایجاد جهانی آرمانی تخم مرغ ها باید شکسته شوند در غیر این صورت نمی‌توان اُملتی درست کرد.

تخم مرغ ها قطعاً شکسته می‌شوند و هیچ گاه به اندازه روزگار ما با خشونت شکسته نشده اند اما رسیدن به آن اُملت بسیار دور از دسترس است.

 ***

آیزایا برلین در ۱۹۰۹ به دنیا آمد و، در ۱۹۹۷ درگذشت، بیشتر عمرش را در روسیه و انگلستان گذرانده امّا متولد «ریگا» در کشور لاتویا است.

گرچه از زندگی نویسان زبَردست «کارل مارکس» است و از او تاثیر گرفته امّا، مارکسیسم را هم نقد کرده، یکی از آثار مشهورش مقاله «جوجه تیغی و روباه» The Hedgehog and the  Fox  است.

آیزایا برلین (جوجه تیغی‌ایّ که روباه بود!) ــ برای تشریح آزادی ــ آزادی از [...] و، آزادی برای‌ [...] ــ این جمله تولستوی را بارها اشاره کرده است:

بر پشت یک نفر سوارم و او را مجبور می‌کنم مرا به این سو و آن سو ببرد. با این حال، خودم و دیگران را مطمئن می‌سازم که برای او بسیار غمگینم و آرزومندم راهی بیابم که او کمتر زیر فشار باشد. اما همه کار می‌کنم جز آن که از پشت او پایین بیایم.

 

«آزادی از» و «آزادی برای»

معروف‌ترین کار برلین در نظریه سیاسی، فرقی است که او در نوشته‌ای به نام «دو مفهوم آزادی» Two Concept Of Liberty  در سال ۱۹۵۸ میان آزادی منفی و آزادی مثبت می‌گذارد.

بر طبق تعریف برلین، آزادی منفی (یا آزادی از)، به معنای تحمیل نکردن مانع و محدودیت از طرف دیگران است و آزادی مثبت (یا آزادی برای)، از سویی به معنای توان تعقیب و رسیدن به هدف و از سوی دیگر به معنای استقلال یا خودفرمانی در مقابل وابستگی به دیگران است.

تمایزی که برلین بین دو مفهم آزادی منفی و مثبت گذاشت، همچنان نقطه‌ آغازی برای بحث دربارهٔ معنا و مفهوم آزادی است.

همنشین بهار

hamneshine_bahar@yahoo.com

 
نگاهی به آثار «آیزایا برلین»

کارل مارکس: زندگی و محيط او ۱۹۳۹

چهار مقاله درباره آزادی ۱۹۴۹

ويکو و هردر: دو پژوهش در تاريخ انديشه‌ها ۱۹۶۹

متفکران روس ۱۹۷۸

مفاهيم و مقولات ۱۹۷۸

برخلاف جريان ۱۹۷۹

برداشت‌های شخصی

سرشت تلخ بشر ۱۹۹۰

مجوس شمال ۱۹۹۳

لحظه حقيقت ۱۹۹۶

آزادی و خيانت به آزادی: شش دشمن آزادی بشر ۲۰۰۲ (سخنرانی‌های سال ۱۹۵۱)

AC

Against the Current

CC

Concepts and Categories

CTH

The Crooked Timber of Humanity

FEL

Four Essays on Liberty

FIB

Freedom and its Betrayal

FL

The First and the Last

L

Liberty

L1

[Flourishing:] Letters 1928–1946

PI

Personal Impressions (2nd edition)

PIRA

Political Ideas in the Romantic Age

POI

The Power of Ideas

PSM

The Proper Study of Mankind

RT

Russian Thinkers

SM

The Soviet Mind

SR

The Sense of Reality

TCE

Three Critics of the Enlightenment

UD

Unfinished Dialogue (with Beata Polanowska-Sygulska)

VH

Vico and Herder

 

 

1928

  • 1  (unattributed) ‘The Collected Poems of G. K. Chesterton’, review of The Collected Poems of G. K. Chesterton,Pauline 46 (1928), 13–15
  • 1a  ‘Reflections on the Art of John Armstrong (O.P.)’, Debater (St Paul’s School) No 9 (March 1928), 4
  • 1b  The Truro Prize Essay (1928) (on freedom), Debater (St Paul’s School) No 10 (November 1928), 3, and No 11 (July 1929), 22; repr. in L1
  • 1c  (unattributed) ‘Our Interview with GKC’, in R. C. Martin, I. M. Berlin and others (eds), The Radiator (St Paul’s School) vol. 1 No 1 (Summer 1928), in which there are likely to be other unsigned contributions by IB
  • 1929 

    2   ‘Pelican s’en va-t-en guerre: a tale of war and peace’, Pelican Record 19 (1929), 34: IB was one of the editors of this journal, the magazine of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, from vol. 19 No 4 (December 1929) to vol. 20 No 4 (June 1932); every issue contains unsigned items, some of which may be his

    • 2a   (unattributed) Review of Oliver Elton, C. E. Montague: A Memoir, Pelican Record 19 (1929), 85

    1930

    •  2b   (under pseudonym ‘Albert Alfred Apricott’) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 10 (1930), 616–27: IB edited six issues of this periodical, from vol. 10 No 52 (May 1930) until vol. 12 No 57 (February 1932), jointly with Arthur Calder-Marshall for No 52, and with Richard Goodman for Nos 55–7
    • 3   ‘Some Procrustations’, Oxford Outlook 10 (1930), 491–502
    • 4   Editorial, Oxford Outlook 10 (1930), 561–5
    • 5   Review of Ernst Benkard, Undying Faces, Oxford Outlook 10 (1930), 628–30

    1931

    • 6   (under pseudonym ‘A.A.A.’: cf. 2b) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 11 (1931), 49–53
    • 7   (under pseudonym ‘A.A.A.’: cf. 2b) ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 11 (1931), 131–5
    • 8   (unattributed) ‘Oglethorpe University, Ga’, Pelican Record 20 (1931), 34–40
    • 9   Editorial, Oxford Outlook 11 (1931), 1–2
    • 10   ‘Alexander Blok’, editorial, Oxford Outlook 11 (1931), 73–6; see also ibid., p. 225
    • 11   Translation of Alexander Blok, ‘The Collapse of Humanism’, Oxford Outlook 11 (1931), 89–112

    1932

    • 12 ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 12 (1932), 61–5
    • 13 ‘Music Chronicle’, Oxford Outlook 12 (1932), 133–8
    • 14 Review of Leonard Woolf, After the Deluge, Oxford Outlook 12 (1932), 68–70

    1933

    • 15   Review of Havelock Ellis, Views and Reviews: First Series, Criterion 12 (1933), 295–8

     1934

    • 16   ‘Music in Decline’, review of Constant Lambert, Music Ho!, Spectator 152 (1934), 745–6

    1935

    • 16a   ‘Impressionist Philosophy’, review of Henri Bergson, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion, trans. R. A. Andra and C. Brereton, London Mercury 32 (1935), 489–90
    • 17   ‘Musiciens D’Autrefois’, review of Bernard van Dieren, Down Among the Dead Men, Spectator 155 (1935), 732 (letter, 906)
    • 17a   ‘The Second Confucius’, review of John Dewey, Art as Experience, London Mercury 31 (1934–5), 387–8

    1936

    • 18   ‘The Future of Music’, review of Cecil Gray, Predicaments, or Music and the Future, Spectator 157 (1936), 317–18
    • 18a   ‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 54 (1935–6), 370 (unattributed), 463–4, 717; 55 (1936–7), 182
    • 19   ‘Obscurum Per Obscurius’, review of T. A. Jackson, Dialectics, Spectator 156 (1936), 888
    • 19a   ‘Plato’, review of G. M. A. Grube, Plato’s Thought, and Vladimir Solovyev, Plato, trans. Richard Gill, with a note on Solovyev by Janko Lavrin, London Mercury 33 (1935–6), 452–3
    • 19b  Contribution (extract from a personal letter) to Daniel Henry Hertz: In Memoriam (London, 1936: privately printed), p. 7

    1937

    • 19c   ‘Boyd Neel String Orchestra’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 588–9
    • 20   ‘Induction and Hypothesis’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society supplementary vol. 16 (1937), 63–102
    • 21   ‘The Father of Anarchism’, review of E. H. Carr, Michael Bakunin, Spectator 159 (1937), 1186
    • 21a   ‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 568
    • 21b   ‘The Mass in D’, review of a performance of Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 558–9
    • 21c   (unattributed) ‘Toscanini’, Oxford Magazine 55 (1936–7), 719–20
    • 22  Review of Julius Weinberg, An Examination of Logical Positivism, Criterion 17 (1937–8), 174–82

    1938

    •  23   ‘The Development of Modern Music’, review of Gerald Abraham, A Hundred Years of Music, Spectator 161 (1938), 489–90
    • 23a   ‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 56 (1937–8), 770–1; 57 (1938–9), 243
    •  23b   ‘Laws of Musical Sound’, review of Sir James Jeans, Science and Music, London Mercury 37 (1937–8), 356
    • 23c   Oxford Subscription Concert’, Oxford Magazine 56 (1937–8), 470–1
    •  23d   Review of Constance Maund, Hume’s Theory of Knowledge, Oxford Magazine 57 (1938–9), 224–5

    1939

    •  24   Karl Marx: His Life and Environment (London, 1939: Thornton Butterworth; Toronto, 1939: Nelson)
      • 2nd ed. (London, 1948: Oxford University Press; New York, 1959: Oxford University Press); repr. with corrections (London and New York, 1960: Oxford University Press); trans. French, German
      • 3rd ed. (London and New York, 1963: Oxford University Press; New York, 1963: Time Inc.; [Tokyo], 1963: Oxford University Press/Maruzen); trans. Dutch, Finnish, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish
      • 4th ed. (Oxford and New York, 1978: Oxford University Press; London, 1978: Book Club Associates; London, 1995: Fontana Press); trans. Dutch, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish
    • 25  ‘Verification’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 39 (1938–9), repr. in G. H. R. Parkinson (ed.), The Theory of Meaning (London, 1968: Oxford University Press), Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol., Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century (London, 2005: Sage), 35–53, and CC; trans. Spanish
    • 26  Review of Karl Britton, Communication, Mind 48 (1939), 518–27

     

    1940

    • 26a   ‘Gramophone Notes’, Oxford Magazine 58 (1939–40), 306–7

    1947

    •  27   ‘The Man Who Became a Myth’, Listener 38 (1947), 23–5; repr. in John Morris (ed.), From the Third Programme: A Ten Years’ Anthology (London, 1956: Nonesuch Press) (with the subtitle ‘Belinsky and his Influence on Nineteenth-Century Russia’), and POI
    •  27a  Review of Ralph Parker, ‘How do you do, Tovarich?’, Listener 38 (1947), 543, 545
    •  28   Review of Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, Mind 56 (1947), 151–66; repr. in A. D. Irvine (ed.), Bertrand Russell: History of Philosophy, Ethics, Education, Religion and Politics, vol. 4 of Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments, 4 vols (London and New York, 1998: Routledge)
    •  28a   ‘Digest’ of Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, British Book News 80 (April 1947), 210–11; repr. in British Book News 1947 (London, 1949)

    1948

    • 29   ‘Karajan: A Study’, Observer, 19 September 1948, 2
    • 30   Russia and 1848’, Slavonic Review 26 (1948), 341–60; repr. in Heinz Lubasz (ed.), Revolutions in Modern European History (New York/London, 1966: Macmillan/Collier-Macmillan) (with revisions), and RT; trans. Polish, Russian
    • 30a   Review of Bishop Fan S. Noli, Beethoven and the French Revolution, English Historical Review 63 (1948), 565–6
    • 30b   Review of Henri Troyat, Firebrand: The Life of Dostoevsky, Listener 40 (1948), 102

    1949

    • 31   ‘The Anglo-American Predicament’, Listener 42 (1949), 518–19 and 538 (letters, 681, 813, 815)
    • 31a  ‘Notes on the Way’, Time and Tide 30 (1949), 1133–4, 1157–8, 1187–8
    •  32   ‘Mr Churchill’ (review of Churchill’s 2nd vol. of war memoirs, Their Finest Hour), Atlantic Monthly 184 No 3 (September 1949), 35–44; as ‘Mr Churchill and F.D.R.’, Cornhill Magazine 81 (1950), 219–40; repr. as Mr Churchill in 1940 (London, [1964]; John Murray; Boston/Cambridge, n.d.: Houghton Mifflin/Riverside Press), as ‘Winston Churchill in 1940’ in PI and PSM; excerpted as ‘Roosevelt and Churchill: A Study of Two Great Personalities’ in News Chronicle, 12 December 1949, 2; trans. German
    •  33   ‘Three Who Made a Revolution’, review of Bertram D. Wolfe, Three Who Made a Revolution, American Historical Review 55 (1949), 86–92
    •  34   Review of G. V. Plekhanov, In Defence of Materialism, trans. Andrew Rothstein, Slavonic Review 28 (1949–50), 257–62 (letter, 607–10)
    •  34a   ‘Attitude on Marxism Stated: Dr Berlin Amplifies His Remarks Made at Mount Holyoke’ (letter), New York Times, 8 July 1949, 18
    •  34b   Review of Leopold Schwarzschild, The Red Prussian: The Life and Legend of Karl Marx, International Affairs 25 (1949), 532–3

    1950

    •  35   ‘Empirical Propositions and Hypothetical Statements’, Mind 59 (1950), 289–312; repr. in Robert J. Schwartz (ed.), Perceiving, Sensing, and Knowing (New York, 1965: Doubleday), Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol., Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century (London, 2005: Sage), 71–94, and CC
    • 36   ‘Logical Translation’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 50 (1949–50), 157–88; repr. in Mark J. Smith (ed.), Philosophy and Methodology of the Social Sciences, vol., Canons and Custodians: Scientific Enquiry in the 20th Century (London, 2005: Sage), 95–119, and CC
    •  36a   ‘The Trends of Culture’, contribution to ‘The Year 1949 in Historical Perspective’, in 1950 Britannica Book of the Year (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1950: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi
    •  37   ‘Political Ideas in the Twentieth Century’, Foreign Affairs 28 (1950), 351–85; repr. in FEL and L and in part in David Cooperman and E. V. Walter (eds), Power and Civilization: Political Thought in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1962: Crowell); trans. German, Japanese, Norwegian, Polish, Russian (in part, from Hebrew (see 112))
    •  38   ‘Socialism and Socialist Theories’, Chambers’s Encyclopaedia (London, 1950: Newnes; New York, 1950: Oxford University Press), vol. 12, 638–50; revised in 1966 ed. (Oxford, New York etc.: Pergamon), vol. 12, 640–52; repr. with further revisions in SR
    •  39   Translation of Ivan Turgenev, First Love: with Rudin, trans. Alex Brown, and an introduction by Lord David Cecil (London, 1950: Hamish Hamilton); illustrated ed. (without Rudin) (London, 1956: Hamish Hamilton; London, 1965: Panther; Harmondsworth, 1977: Penguin); repr. with an introduction by V. S. Pritchett (Harmondsworth, 1978: Penguin); reissued (with Cecil’s introduction) with 66 as First Love [and] A Fire at Sea (London, 1982: Hogarth Press; New York, 1983: Viking); reissued with 66 and Spring Torrents (trans. Leonard Schapiro) as First Love and Other Stories (London, 1994: David Campbell Publishers [Everyman’s Library]); trans. Malay
    •  39a  ‘Soviet Beginnings’, review of E. H. Carr, A History of Soviet Russia, vol. 1: The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923, Sunday Times, 10 December 1950, 3
    •  40   ‘Russian Literature: The Great Century’, review of D. S. Mirsky, A History of Russian Literature, Nation 170 (1950), 180–3, 207–8
    •  41   ‘The Energy of Pasternak’, review of Boris Pasternak, Selected Writings, Partisan Review 17 (1950), 748–51; repr. in Victor Erlich (ed.), Pasternak: A Collection of Critical Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1978: Prentice-Hall)
    •  41a  ‘ “A Sense of Reality” about Russia’, review of Walter Bedell Smith, My Three Years in Moscow, New York Times Book Review, 8 January 1950, 1, 25
    •  42   ‘A View of Russian Literature’, review of Marc Slonim, The Epic of Russian Literature, Partisan Review 17 (1950), 617–23
    • 1951
    • 43   ‘Jewish Slavery and Emancipation’, Jewish Chronicle, 21 September 1951, 17, 24; 28 September 1951, 17, 19; 5 October 1951, 13, 15; 12 October 1951, 8; repr. from Norman Bentwich (ed.), Hebrew University Garland (London, 1952: Constellation Books), 18–42; repr. in POI; trans. Catalan, French; see also 152a
    •  44   ‘Lev Tolstoy’s Historical Scepticism’, Oxford Slavonic Papers 2 (1951), 17–54; repr. with additions as The Hedgehog and the Fox: An Essay on Tolstoy’s View of History (London, 1953: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1953: Simon and Schuster; New York, 1957: New American Library; New York, 1986: Simon and Schuster, with an introduction by Michael Walzer); repr. in RT and PSM; RT text reprinted separately (London, 1992: Phoenix; Chicago, 1993: Ivan R. Dee) and excerpted as Tolstoy and History (London, 1996: Phoenix); trans. Finnish, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian (in part), Polish, Russian, Spanish; see also 173
    •  44a   ‘Nineteen Fifty: A Survey of Politico-Cultural Trends of the Year’, in 1951 Britannica Book of the Year (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1951: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi
    •  45  ‘On Translating Turgenev’, review of I. S. Turgenev, Smoke, On the Eve, Virgin Soil, Fathers and Children and A House of Gentle Folk, trans. Constance Garnett, Observer, 11 November 1951, 7
    •  45a   Review of Edmund Hallett Carr, Studies in Revolution, International Affairs 27 (1951), 470–1
    •  45b   Review of Benoit-P. Hepner, Bakounine et le panslavisme revolutionnaire, Slavonic Review 30 (1951–2), 280–5
    •  45c   ‘This Modern Age’, review of Hans Kohn, The Twentieth Century, Jewish Chronicle, 10 August 1951, 10

    1952

    •  46   (under pseudonym ‘O. Utis’) ‘Generalissimo Stalin and the Art of Government’, Foreign Affairs 30 (1952), 197–214; repr.as ‘The Artificial Dialectic: Generalissimo Stalin and the Art of Government’ in SM; trans. German, Russian, Swedish
    • 46a   ‘Lament for Lipatti’, House and Garden 7 No 3 (March 1952), 91, 98
    • 46b   ‘Nineteen Fifty-One: A Survey of Cultural Trends of the Year’, in Britannica Book of the Year 1952 (Chicago/Toronto/London, 1952: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.), xxii–xxxi
    • 47   Review of Benedetto Croce, My Philosophy, Mind 61 (1952), 574–8
    • 48   Review of Morton White, Social Thought in America, Mind 61 (1952), 405–9
    • 49   ‘Dr Chaim Weizmann’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 17 November 1952, 8
    • 50   ‘The Fate of Liberty’ (letter), The Times, 16 December 1952, 9
    • 50a  Contribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 21 December 1952, p. 6

    1953

    •  51   Henderson at Oxford: 1. All Souls’, in T. Wilson (ed.), ‘Sir Hubert Henderson, 1890–1952’, supplement to Oxford Economic Papers 5 (1953), 55–8; repr. as ‘Hubert Henderson at All Souls’ in PI
    •  52   Israel: A Survey’, in The State of Israel (London, 1953: Anglo-Israel Association), 42–55; repr. as ‘The Face of Israel’, Jewish Frontier 21 No 5 (May 1954), 22–30, in Israel: Some Aspects of the New State (London, 1955: Anglo-Israel Association) and as ‘The Origins of Israel’ in Walter Z. Laqueur (ed.), The Middle East in Transition (London, 1958: Routledge and Kegan Paul), and POI; trans. French
    •  53   (unattributed) ‘Thinkers or Philosophers?’, review of N. O. Lossky, History of Russian Philosophy, Times Literary Supplement, 27 March 1953, 197–8
    •  53a   Review of Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, trans. F. C. A. Koelnn and J. P. Pettegrove, English Historical Review 68 (1953), 617–19
    •  53b  Review of George L. Kline, Spinoza in Soviet Philosophy, Oxford Magazine 71 (1952–3), 232–3
    •  53c  Contribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 20 December 1953, p. 6, on Virginia Woolf, A Writer’s Diary

    1954

    •  54   Historical Inevitability [delivered under the title ‘History as an Alibi’], Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lecture No 1 (London, 1954: Oxford University Press), 76 pp.; repr. in Auguste Comte Memorial Lectures 1953–1962 (London, 1964: Athlone Press), FEL and L, Patrick Gardiner (ed.), The Philosophy of History (London, 1974: Oxford University Press), and PSM; excerpted in Hans Meyerhoff (ed.), The Philosophy of History in Our Time: An Anthology (New York, 1959: Doubleday); trans. Italian, Japanese, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish
    •  54a   ‘Men Who Lead’ (on Chaim Weizmann), Jerusalem Post, 2 November 1954, 5, 6; repr. as ‘The Anatomy of Leadership’ in Jewish Frontier 21 No 12 (December 1954), 13–17, and as ‘Chaim Weizmann’s Leadership’ in POI
    •  55   ‘Realism in Politics’, Spectator 193 (1954), 774–6; repr. in POI
    •  55a   ‘Calling America to Greatness’, review of Adlai Stevenson, Call to Greatness, Sunday Times, 5 December 1954, 6

    1955

    •  56   ‘Herzen and Bakunin on Individual Liberty’, in Ernest J. Simmons (ed.), Continuity and Change in Russian and Soviet Thought (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1955: Harvard University Press), 473–99; repr. in RT; trans. Russian
    •  57   ‘A Marvellous Decade’, Northcliffe Lectures for 1954; repr. as ‘A Remarkable Decade’ in RT; trans. Italian, Russian
      • I    ‘1838–48: The Birth of the Russian Intelligentsia’, Encounter 4 No 6 (June 1955), 27–39; trans. Russian
      • II   ‘1838–48: German Romanticism in Petersburg and Moscow’, Encounter 5 No 11 (November 1955), 21–9
      • III   ‘Belinsky: Moralist and Prophet’, Encounter 5 No 12 (December 1955), 22–43
      • IV   ‘Herzen and the Grand Inquisitors’, Encounter 6 No 5 (May 1956), 20–34; repr. as ‘Alexander Herzen’ in Stephen Spender, Irving Kristol and Melvin J. Lasky (eds), Encounters: An Anthology from the First Ten Years of Encounter Magazine (New York, 1965: Simon and Schuster), and as introduction to Alexander Herzen, Childhood, Youth and Exile, trans. J. D. Duff (Oxford, 1980: Oxford University Press); excerpted in John Gross (ed.), The New Oxford Book of English Prose (Oxford, 1998: Oxford University Press); trans. French, Japanese, Russian
    • 58   ‘Montesquieu’, Proceedings of the British Academy 41 (1955), 267–96; repr. in AC; trans. Estonian
    • 59   (with Anthony Quinton, Stuart Hampshire and Iris Murdoch) ‘Philosophy and Beliefs’, Twentieth Century 157 (1955), 495–521
    • 60   Roosevelt through European Eyes’, Atlantic Monthly 196 No 1 (July 1955), 67–71; as ‘President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’, Political Quarterly 26 (1955), 336–44; repr. under the latter title in PI and PSM
    •  61   ‘The Furious Vissarion’, review of Herbert E. Bowman, Vissarion Belinski, New Statesman and Nation 50 (July–December 1955), 447–8; repr. in New Leader (U.S.A.), 16 January 1956, 21–2
    •  61a   ‘Words of Wisdom’, review of The Table Talk of a Modern Sage: Dialogues of Alfred North Whitehead, OM, as recorded by Lucien Price, Jewish Chronicle, 18 February 1955, 18
    •  61b   ‘Marx as Historian’ (letter), New Statesman and Nation 50 (July–December 1955), 366

    1956

    •  62   (ed. with introduction and commentary) The Age of Enlightenment: The Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (Boston, 1956: Houghton Mifflin; New York, 1956: New American Library; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press); introduction excerpted in Jack Lively (ed.), The Enlightenment (London, 1966: Longmans), and repr. as ‘The Philosophers of the Enlightenment’ in POI; trans. Chinese
    •  63   Introduction to Alexander Herzen, From the Other Shore and The Russian People and Socialism (London, 1956: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press), vii–xxiii/xxv; repr. with postscript as ‘“A Revolutionary Without Fanaticism”’, New York Review of Books, 19 April 1979, 16–21, and (with further revisions) in POI; trans. Finnish, Italian, Japanese, Russian
    •  64   ‘Equality’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 56 (1955–6), 301–26; repr. as ‘Equality as an Ideal’ in Frederick A. Olafson (ed.), Justice and Social Policy: A Collection of Essays (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961: Prentice-Hall), the Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Political Science, No 68812, and CC
    •  65  ‘The Father of Russian Marxism’ (Plekhanov), Listener 56 (1956), 1063–4, 1077; repr. in New Leader (U.S.A.), 4 February 1957, 14–17 (as ‘Father of Russian Socialism’), and POI; trans. French, Russian
    •  65a  ‘Portrait of a Nineteenth-Century Prophet’, review of George Woodcock, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Sunday Times, 21 October 1956, 8


    1957

    •  66   ‘An Episode in the Life of Ivan Turgenev’, London Magazine 4 No 7 (July 1957), 14–24 (includes translation of Turgenev’s ‘A Fire at Sea’); reissued with 39 as First Love [and] A Fire at Sea (London, 1982: Hogarth Press; New York, 1983: Viking)
    •  67   ‘The Silence in Russian Culture’, Foreign Affairs 36 (1957), 1–24; repr. in James F. Hoge, Jr, and Fareed Zakaria (eds), The American Encounter: The United States and the Making of the Modern World, Essays from 75 Years of ‘Foreign Affairs’ (New York, 1997: Basic Books); repr. with 68 as ‘Soviet Russian Culture’ in SM; trans. Russian
    •  68   (under pseudonym ‘L.’) ‘The Soviet Intelligentsia’, Foreign Affairs 36 (1957), 122–30; repr. with 67 as ‘Soviet Russian Culture’ in SM; trans. German, Russian
    •  68a   (with Edgar Lustgarten and Lords Hailsham and Russell) ‘London Forum’ (discussion of ‘The Role of Great Men in History’), London Calling, 31 January 1957, 3–4, 10
    •  69   (with Miriam Rothschild) ‘Mr James de Rothschild: “Grand Seigneur”’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 13 May 1957, 15
    • 69a  (with others) ‘Budapest Sentences’ (letter), Manchester Guardian, 25 June 1957, 6
    • 69b  (with others) ‘Murder in Budapest’ (letter), Daily Telegraph, 25 June 1957, 8

    1958

    •  70   Chaim Weizmann, 2nd Herbert Samuel Lecture (London, 1958: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, n.d.: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy), 60 pp.; repr. in PI
    •  71   Two Concepts of Liberty, Inaugural Lecture as Chichele Professor of Social and Political Theory (Oxford, 1958: Clarendon Press), 55 pp.; repr. in FEL, PSM and L, in Preston King (ed.), The Study of Politics: A Collection of Inaugural Lectures (London, 1977: Frank Cass) and Philip Pettit and Robert E. Goodin (eds), Contemporary Political Philosophy: An Anthology (Oxford, 1998: Blackwell), and in part in William Ebenstein (ed.), Modern Political Thought: The Great Issues, 2nd ed. (New York, 1960: Holt, Rinehart and Winston) (as ‘Freedom: Negative or Positive?’), Iain MacKenzie (ed.), Political Concepts: A Reader and Guide (Edinburgh, 2005: Edinburgh University Press), Anthony Quinton (ed.), Political Philosophy (London, 1967: Oxford University Press), David Miller (ed.), Liberty (Oxford, 1991: Oxford University Press), and Michael Sandel (ed.), Liberalism and its Critics (Oxford, 1984: Blackwell); ed. with notes by Kimiyoshi Yura (Kyoto, 1967: Apollon-sha); trans. Arabic, Bulgarian, Dutch, Estonian, Georgian, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Slovenian (in part), Spanish, Ukrainian
    •  72   ‘Richard Pares’, Balliol College Record 1958, 32–4; repr. in PI
    •  72a   Contribution (principally on Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago) to ‘Books of the Year: I’, Sunday Times, 21 December 1958, 6
    • 72b   (with others) ‘Homosexual Acts: Call to Reform Law’ (letter), The Times, 7 March 1958, 11

    1959

    •  73   European Unity and its Vicissitudes (Amsterdam, 1959: Fondation Européenne de la Culture), 31 pp.; repr. in CTH; trans. Arabic, Estonian, French, Lithuanian, Russian, Spanish
    •  74   John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life, Robert Waley Cohen Memorial Lecture (London, 1959: Council of Christians and Jews), 32 pp.; repr. in FEL and L and as introduction to John Stuart Mill, On Liberty and Utilitarianism, Everyman’s Library 81 (London, 1992: David Campbell; New York, 1992: Knopf); trans. Japanese
    •  75   The Life and Opinions of Moses Hess, Lucien Wolf Memorial Lecture (Cambridge, 1959: Heffer), 49 pp.; digest in Jewish Chronicle, 13 December 1957, 19; repr. in Philip Rieff (ed.), On Intellectuals (New York, 1969: Doubleday), Ezra Mendelsohn (ed.), Essential Papers on Jews and the Left (New York and London, 1997: New York University Press), and AC; trans. Estonian, French, Russian
    •  75a   ‘An Oxford Manifesto’ (letters), New Statesman 58 (July–December 1959), 511, 582
    • 75b   (with others) ‘Lolita’ (letter), Times Literary Supplement, 23 January 1959, 11

    1960

    •  76   Introduction to Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution (London, 1960: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1966: Grosset and Dunlap), vii–xxx; repr. as ‘Russian Populism’ in Encounter 15 No 1 (July 1960), 13–28, and RT; trans. Russian
    •  77   ‘History and Theory: The Concept of Scientific History’, History and Theory 1 (1960), 1–31; repr. in Alexander V. Riasanovsky and Barnes Riznik (eds), Generalizations in Historical Writing (Philadelphia, 1963: University of Pennsylvania Press), and as ‘The Concept of Scientific History’ in William H. Dray (ed.), Philosophical Analysis and History (New York, 1966: Harper and Row), CC and PSM; trans. German (in part), Japanese, Russian, Spanish
    •  78   ‘Marx’, in J. O. Urmson (ed.), Concise Encyclopedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers (London, 1960: Hutchinson; 2nd ed. 1975), 176–81; repr. in POI; trans. Spanish
    •  79   ‘The Philosophical Ideas of Giambattista Vico’, in Art and Ideas in Eighteenth-Century Italy (Rome, 1960: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura), 156–233; repr. in revised form in VH and TCE; trans. Hebrew; see also 99
    •  79a   ‘No Earthly Paradise’, review of Reinhold Niebuhr, Nations and Empires, Guardian, 25 November 1960, 7
    •  79b   Review of Richard Hare, Portraits of Russian Personalities between Reform and Revolution, English Historical Review 75 (1960), 500–2
    •  80   Review of Henry Vyverberg, Historical Pessimism in the French Enlightenment, French Studies 14 (1960), 167–70
    • 80a  (with others) ‘S. A. Boycott’ (letter), Isis, 11 May 1960, 19

    1961

    •  81   ‘La theorie politique existe-t-elle?’, Revue française de science politique 11 (1961), 309–37; repr. in English as ‘Does Political Theory Still Exist?’ in Peter Laslett and W. G. Runciman (eds), Philosophy, Politics and Society, 2nd Series (Oxford, 1962: Blackwell), CC and PSM; trans. Estonian, Japanese, Spanish
    • 81a   (unattributed) ‘Research Institutions’, chapter 9 of Research in the Humanities and the Social Sciences: Report of a Survey by the British Academy 1958–1960 (London, 1961: Oxford University Press)
    •  82   ‘Tolstoy and Enlightenment’, Hermon Ould Memorial Lecture for 1960, Encounter 16 No 2 (February 1961), 29–40; letter, Times Literary Supplement, 2 December 1960, 779; lecture repr. in Mightier Than The Sword (London, 1964: Macmillan) and RT; trans. Russian, Spanish
    •  82a   Review of Elie Kedourie, Nationalism, Oxford Magazine, New Series 1 (1960–1), 147–8
    •  83   ‘What is History?’ (an exchange of letters with E. H. Carr), Listener 65 (1961), 877, 1048–9


    1962

    •  84   ‘The Biographical Facts’, in Meyer W. Weisgal and Joel Carmichael (eds), Chaim Weizmann (London, 1962: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; New York, 1963: Atheneum), 17–56; repr. in Dan Leon and Yehuda Adin (eds), Chaim Weizmann, Statesman of the Jewish Renaissance (Jerusalem, 1974: The Zionist Library); trans. French, Hebrew, Spanish
    •  85   ‘The Purpose of Philosophy’, Insight (Nigeria) 1 No 1 (July 1962), 12–15; repr. in the Sunday Times, 4 November 1962, 23, 26, Viewpoint No 6 (1963 No 2), 29–31, Leonard Russell (ed.), Encore, 2nd Year (London, 1963: Michael Joseph) (as ‘Philosophy’s Goal’), CC and POI; excerpted as ‘A “Dangerous but Important Activity” ’ in University: A Princeton Quarterly No 28 (Spring 1966), 1 (repr. in Van Cleve Morris [(ed.)], Modern Movements in Educational Philosophy (Boston, [1969]: Houghton Mifflin), 9–11); trans. Estonian, Lithuanian, Russian
    •  86   ‘Mr Carr’s Big Battalions’, review of E. H. Carr, What is History?, New Statesman 63 (January–June 1962), 15–16
    •  87   (unattributed) ‘The Road to Catastrophe’, review of Hans Kohn, The Mind of Germany, and G. P. Gooch, French Profiles: Prophets and Pioneers, Times Literary Supplement, 30 March 1962, 216; letter, 20 April 1962, 265

    1963

    •  88   Contribution to Clara Urquhart (ed.), A Matter of Life (London, 1963: Cape), 39–40
    •  89   ‘Historical Note’, in Khovanshchina (opera programme) ([London], 1963: Royal Opera House Covent Garden Ltd), 5 pp.; repr. in the 1972 programme as ‘Programme Note: Modest Mussorgsky (1839–1881)’, as ‘Khovanshchina’ in the 1982 programme and San Francisco Opera, Fall Season 1984, 34–8, and with revisions as ‘A Note on “Khovanshchina” ’, New York Review of Books, 19 December 1985, 40–2; excerpted as ‘Stasov, Mussorgsky and Khovanshchina’ in The Kirov Opera (opera programme) ([London], 2005: Royal Opera House), 24
    •  90   ‘Why are these books neglected?’, Twentieth Century 172 No 1019 (Autumn 1963), 139–47
    •  90a   (with others) ‘Dr Ranger’s Expulsion’, The Times, 11 February 1963, 11

    1964

    •  91   Contribution to Meyer W. Weisgal (New York, 1964), 1 p.; repr. as ‘A Generous Imaginative Idealist’ in Edward Victor (ed.), Meyer Weisgal at Seventy (London, 1966: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)
    •  92   ‘Felix Frankfurter at Oxford’, in Wallace Mendelson (ed.), Felix Frankfurter: A Tribute (New York, 1964: Reynal), 22–31; repr. in Quest 1 (1965), 20–2, and PI
    •  93   ‘From Hope and Fear Set Free’, Presidential Address, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 64 (1963–4), 1–30; repr. in CC, PSM and L; trans. Estonian
    •  94   ‘Hobbes, Locke and Professor Macpherson’, review of C. B. Macpherson, The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, Hobbes to Locke, Political Quarterly 35 (1964), 444–68
    •  95   ‘Portrait of Ben-Gurion’, review of Maurice Edelman, Ben-Gurion: A Political Biography, Jewish Chronicle, 25 December 1964, 7, 22
    •  95a   ‘Rationality of Value Judgments’, Nomos 7 [Carl J. Friedrich (ed.), Rational Decision (New York, 1964: Atherton Press; London, 1964: Prentice-Hall International)], 221–3
    •  95b  (in paraphrase) Contributions to John Keep and Liliana Brisby (eds), Contemporary History in the Soviet Mirror (London, 1964: George Allen and Unwin), pp. 40–1, 89, 220, 330
    •  95c  ‘Olga Ivinskaya’ (letter), Observer, 15 March 1964, 11
    •  95d  Contribution to ‘The Death of Lord Marks’, Jewish Observer and Middle East Review, 11 December 1964, 37

    1965

    •  96   Contribution to Julian Huxley (ed.), Aldous Huxley (London, 1965: Chatto and Windus), 144–53; repr. as ‘Aldous Huxley’ in PI
    •  97   Contribution to Ian Kemp (ed.), Michael Tippett: A Symposium on his 60th Birthday (London, 1965: Faber), 62–3
    •  98   ‘Herder and the Enlightenment’, in Earl R. Wasserman (ed.), Aspects of the Eighteenth Century (Baltimore, 1965: Johns Hopkins Press), 47–104; repr. as ‘J. G. Herder’, Encounter 25 No 1 (July 1965), 29–48, No 2 (August 1965), 42–51; repr. in revised form in VH, PSM and TCE; trans. Spanish
    •  98a   (with H. L. A. Hart) ‘Postgraduate Studies in Oxford’, in University of Oxford, Commission of Inquiry [‘The Franks Commission’]: Evidence, part 11, Individuals (Oxford, 1965: Oxford University Press), pp. 12–16
    •  99   ‘Sulla teoria del Vico circa la conoscenza storica’ (a much expanded version of ‘Appendix: On Vico’s Epistemology’ in 79), Lettere italiane 17 (1965), 420–31; repr. as ‘Appendice sulla teoria del Vico circa la conoscenza storica’ in Vittore Branca (ed.), Sensibilità e razionalità nel settecento (Florence, 1967: Sansoni); repr. in revised form as ‘Vico’s Theory of Knowledge and its Sources’ in VH and TCE
    •  100   Review of C. P. Courtney, Montesquieu and Burke, Modern Language Review 60 (1965), 449–52
    •  101   ‘A Great Russian Writer’, review of Osip Mandelstam, The Prose of Osip Mandelstam, New York Review of Books, 23 December 1965, 3–4; repr. in SM
    •  101a   ‘The Thought of de Tocqueville’, review of Jack Lively, The Social and Political Thought of Alexis de Tocqueville, History 50 (1965), 199–206

    1966

    •  102   Introduction to Marc Raeff (ed.), Russian Intellectual History (New York/Chicago/Burlingame, 1966: Harcourt, Brace and World; Hassocks, 1978: Harvester; New York, 1978: Humanities Press), 3–11; repr. as ‘Russian Intellectual History’ in POI
    •  103   Preface to H. G. Schenk, The Mind of the European Romantics (London, 1966: Constable; New York, 1969: Doubleday; Oxford, 1979: Oxford University Press), xiii–xviii; repr. as ‘The Essence of European Romanticism’ in POI; trans. Japanese, Spanish
    •  104   ‘L. B. Namier: A Personal Impression’, in Martin Gilbert (ed.), A Century of Conflict (London, 1966: Hamish Hamilton); repr. in Encounter 27 No 5 (November 1966), 32–42 (letter, 28 No 1 (January 1967), 92), Journal of Historical Studies 1 (1967–8), 117–36, and PI
    •  105   ‘The Great Blood Libel Case’, review of Maurice Samuel, Blood Accusation: The Strange History of the Beiliss Case, Jewish Chronicle Literary Supplement, 23 December 1966, 3–4; repr. as ‘The Beiliss Case: Prelude to Revolution’ in Midstream 13 No 2 (February 1967), 66–72
    •  106   ‘New Ways in History’ (letter), Times Literary Supplement, 21 April 1966, 347
    •  106a  Endorsement of Walter Kaufmann, Hegel (US edition, 1965), on jacket of UK edition (London, 1966: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)


    1967

    • 106b  Foreword to G. L. Seidler, The Emergence of the Eastern World: Seven Essays on Political Ideas (Oxford etc.,1968: Pergamon), ix
    • 107   Contribution to Cecil Woolf and John Bagguley (eds), Authors take Sides on Vietnam (New York, 1967: Simon and Schuster), 20–1
    • 107a  (with others) ‘Issues Behind the Oxford Fund’, (letter), The Times, 7 July 1967, 9
    • 107b  (with others) ‘Victor Gollancz’ (letter), The Times, 1 August 1967, 9

     1968

    •  108   Introduction to Alexander Herzen, My Past and Thoughts (London, 1968: Chatto and Windus; New York, 1968: Knopf; ed. and abridged by Dwight Macdonald, New York, 1973: Knopf; London, 1974: Chatto and Windus; Berkeley, 1982: University of California Press), 25 pp.; repr. as ‘The Great Amateur’, New York Review of Books, 14 March 1968, 9–18, as ‘Herzen and his Memoirs’ in AC, in Robert B. Silvers, Barbara Epstein and Rea S. Hederman (eds), The First Anthology: 30 Years of The New York Review of Books (New York, 1993: New York Review of Books), and in PSM; trans. German, Japanese, Russian, Spanish
    •  109   Comment on Richard Pipes, ‘The Origins of Bolshevism: The Intellectual Evolution of Young Lenin’, in Richard Pipes (ed.), Revolutionary Russia (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1968: Harvard University Press), 52–9
    •  110   ‘The “Naïveté” of Verdi’, Hudson Review 21 (1968), 138–47; repr. from Atti del I congresso internazionale di studi verdiani, 1966 (Parma, 1969: Istituto di Studi Verdiani), 27–35; repr. in About The House 3 No 1 (March 1969), 8–13, New Republic, 6 October 1979, 30–4, Ernani (opera programme) ([Cardiff, 1979]: Welsh National Opera) (abridged), William Weaver and Martin Chusid (eds), The Verdi Companion (London, 1980: Gollancz), Opera 31 (1980), 128–35, and AC; trans. French, German, Japanese
    •  111   ‘The Role of the Intelligentsia’, Listener 79 (1968), 563–5; repr. in Derwent May (ed.), Good Talk 2: An Anthology from BBC Radio (London, 1969: Gollancz), and POI
    •  111a   Contribution to ‘Books of the Year: A Personal Choice’, Observer, 22 December 1968, 17
    • 112   Four Essays on Liberty (revised reprints of 37, 54, 71, 74, with a new introduction) (London and New York, 1969: Oxford University Press); repr. in L; trans. Albanian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Latvian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croat, Spanish, Swedish, Ukrainian
    •  113   Foreword to Michael Yudkin (ed.), General Education: A Symposium on the Teaching of Non-Specialists (Harmondsworth, 1969: Allen Lane/Penguin), 9–20; repr. as ‘General Education’ in Oxford Review of Education 1 (1975), 287–92, and POI; trans. Japanese
    •  114   ‘A Note on Vico’s Concept of Knowledge’, in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Hayden V. White (eds), Giambattista Vico: An International Symposium (Baltimore, [1969]: Johns Hopkins Press), 371–7; repr. in New York Review of Books, 24 April 1969, 23–6, and AC; trans. Spanish
    •  115   ‘One of the Boldest Innovators in the History of Human Thought’ (Vico), New York Times Magazine, 23 November 1969, 76–100; repr. in Ben Seligman (ed.), Molders of Modern Thought (Chicago, 1970: Quadrangle Books), and POI; trans. Spanish
    •  116   ‘Reply to Orsini’, Journal of the History of Ideas 30 (1969), 91–5 (abstract in the Philosopher’s Index 3 (1969), 282)

    1970

    •  117   Foreword to R. D. Miller, Schiller and the Ideal of Freedom: A Study of Schiller’s Philosophical Works with Chapters on Kant (Oxford, 1970: Clarendon Press), v
    •  118   ‘Benjamin Disraeli, Karl Marx, and the Search for Identity’, in Transactions of the Jewish Historical Society of England 22 (1968–9) (London, 1970: Jewish Historical Society of England); repr. in Midstream 16 No 7 (August–September 1970), 29–49, and AC; trans. French, Hungarian, Lithuanian, Spanish
    •  119   ‘Weizmann as Exilarch’, in Chaim Weizmann as Leader (Jerusalem, 1970: Hebrew University of Jerusalem), 13–21; trans. Hebrew


     1971

    •  120   Sir Maurice Bowra, 1898–1971 (Oxford, [1971]: Wadham College), 10 pp.; repr. as ‘Memorial Address in St Mary’s’ in Hugh Lloyd-Jones (ed.), Maurice Bowra (London, 1974: Duckworth), and as ‘Maurice Bowra’ in PI
    •  121   ‘Georges Sorel’, Creighton Lecture, Times Literary Supplement, 31 December 1971, 1617–22; repr. in expanded form in Chimen Abramsky (ed.), Essays in Honour of E. H. Carr (London, 1974: Macmillan), 3–35, and AC; trans. Hebrew, Spanish; see also 132
    •  122   ‘The Question of Machiavelli’, New York Review of Books, 4 November 1971, 20–32; repr. of part of ‘The Originality of Machiavelli’, in Myron P. Gilmore (ed.), Studies on Machiavelli (Florence, 1972: Sansoni), 149–206; repr. in the Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series in Political Science, No 68813; full version repr. in John Dunn and Ian Harris (eds), Machiavelli (Cheltenham and Lyme, 1997: Edward Elgar), vol. 2, AC and PSM and trans. Lithuanian, Portuguese, Russian
    •  123   ‘Randolph’, in Kay Halle (ed.), Randolph Churchill: The Young Unpretender (London, 1971: Heinemann), 278–9
    •  124   ‘Tchaikovsky and Eugene Onegin’, Glyndebourne Festival Programme Book 1971, 58–63; repr. as ‘Tchaikovsky, Pushkin and Onegin’ in Musical Times 121 (1980), 163–8, and Eugene Onegin (Oxford University Opera Club programme) ([Oxford], 1992)
    • 124a   (with others) ‘George Seferis’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 16 December 1971, 42
    •  124b   ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin OM replies to a letter from the Editor’, Jewish Chronicle, 12 November 1971, 35

    1972

    •  125   Fathers and Children: Turgenev and the Liberal Predicament, Romanes Lecture (Oxford, 1972: Clarendon Press; repr. with corrections 1973), 61 pp.; repr. in New York Review of Books, 18 October 1973, 39–44, 1 November 1973, 22–9, 15 November 1973, 9–11, as introduction to Ivan Turgenev, Fathers and Sons, trans. Rosemary Edmonds (Harmondsworth, 1975: Penguin), and in RT; excerpted as ‘The Liberal Predicament’ in Dialogue 11 No 4 (1978), 90–5; trans. Japanese, Russian; see also 138
    •  126   Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington: A Fragment of Personal Reminiscence, Yaacov Herzog Memorial Lecture (Jerusalem, 1972: Hebrew University of Jerusalem), 61 pp.; excerpted in Barnet Litvinoff (ed.), The Essential Chaim Weizmann: The Man, the Statesman, the Scientist (London, 1982: Weidenfeld and Nicolson); originally to have been reprinted in PI, but IB changed his mind; repr. in L1; trans. Hebrew
    •  127   Foreword to Friedrich Meinecke, Historism: The Rise of a New Historical Outlook, trans. J. E. Anderson (London, 1972: Routledge and Kegan Paul), ix–xvi; repr. as ‘Meinecke and Historicism’ in POI
    •  128   ‘The Bent Twig: A Note on Nationalism’, Foreign Affairs 51 (1972), 11–30; repr. in James F. Hoge, Jr, and Fareed Zakaria (eds), The American Encounter: The United States and the Making of the Modern World, Essays from 75 Years of ‘Foreign Affairs’ (New York, 1997: Basic Books), and CTH; trans. Arabic, French, German, Hungarian, Spanish
    •  129   ‘Dr Jacob Herzog’, Jewish Chronicle, 14 April 1972, 28, 43; repr. as ‘Yaacov Herzog: a Tribute’ as preface to 126 and in Misha Louvish (ed.), A People that Dwells Alone: Speeches and Writings of Yaacov Herzog (London, 1995: Weidenfeld and Nicolson)
    •  130   ‘Giambattista Vico’, Listener 88 (1972), 391–8; trans. Spanish
    •  131   ‘History as we would like it’, World View 15 No 7 (July 1972), 16
    •  132   ‘Sorel’ (letter), Times Literary Supplement, 14 January 1972, 40; cf. 121
    • 132a  (with others) ‘In Memory of Cecil Roth’ (letter), Jewish Chronicle, 1 September 1972, 21

    1973

    •  133   ‘Austin and the Early Beginnings of Oxford Philosophy’, in Essays on J. L. Austin (Oxford, 1973: Clarendon Press), 1–16; repr. in PI; trans. German
    •  134   ‘The Counter-Enlightenment’, Dictionary of the History of Ideas (New York, 1968–73: Scribner’s), vol. 2 (1973), 100–12; repr. in AC and PSM; trans. Estonian, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian
    •  135   ‘A Nation Among Nations’, Jewish Chronicle, Colour Magazine, 4 May 1973, 28–34; excerpted as ‘Israel at 25’ in Jerusalem Post, 18 May 1973, magazine supplement, 7
    •  136   ‘Notes on the Foundation of Wolfson College’, Lycidas 1 (1973), 2–4
    •  137   ‘Mr Hamilton Fish Armstrong’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 28 April 1973, 16
    •  138   ‘Fathers and Children’ (letter), Times Literary Supplement, 12 January 1973, 40; cf. 125
    •  1974
    •  139   The Divorce between the Sciences and the Humanities, 2nd Tykociner Memorial Lecture (Illinois, 1974: University of Illinois), 34 pp.; repr. in Salmagundi No 27 (Summer/Fall 1974), 9–39, Robert Boyers and Peggy Boyers (eds), The Salmagundi Reader (Bloomington, 1983: Indiana University Press), AC and PSM; trans. Italian, Polish
    •  140   Contribution to Arthur Lehning in 1974 (Leiden, 1974: Brill), 3 pp.
    •  141   ‘Mr C. E. Bohlen: Close Study of Soviet Leaders’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 11 January 1974, 16
    •  141a   ‘Mr Raimund von Hofmannsthal’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 26 April 1974, 20
    • 141b  Contribution to ‘From Missolonghi to Apsley House – A Reappraisal of Byron’, Listener 91 (1974), 623–6
    •  141c  Contribution to ‘I remember, I remember’, Times Literary Supplement, 6 December 1974, 1370
    • 141d  Contribution (excerpt from ‘The Russian Preoccupation with History’) to ‘Out of the Year’, Listener 92 (1974), 830

    1975

    •  142   John Petrov Plamenatz, 1912–1975 (Oxford, [1975]: All Souls College), 12 pp.; repr. in PI
    • 142a  Foreword (on Avraham Harman) to Dov Noy and Issachar Ben-Ami (eds), Studies in the Cultural Life of the Jews in England (Jerusalem, 1975: Magnes Press, the Hebrew University), 7
    •  143   ‘L’apoteosi della volontà romantica: la rivolta contro il tipo di un mondo ideale’, Lettere italiane 27 (1975), 44–68; original English version, ‘The Apotheosis of the Romantic Will: The Revolt against the Myth of an Ideal World’, published in CTH, repr. in PSM and trans. Latvian, Spanish
    •  144   ‘Performances memorable and not so memorable’, Opera 26 (1975), 116–20
    •  145   Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 61 (1975), 71–81
    •  146   Speech at the Official Opening of Wolfson College, Oxford, 12 November 1974, Lycidas 3 (1975), 3–6
    •  146a   (unattributed) ‘Sir John Wheeler-Bennett’ (obituary), The Times, 10 December 1975, 19
    •  147   ‘Sir John Wheeler-Bennett’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 13 December 1975, 16
    •  147a  (with others) ‘Writers and the Closed Shop’ (letter), Times Literary Supplement, 25 April 1975, 441

    1976

    •  148   Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas (London, 1976: Hogarth Press; New York, 1976: Viking; New York, 1977: Vintage Books; London, 1980: Chatto and Windus; London, 1992: Hogarth Press) (revised versions of 79, 98 and 99, with a new introduction); repr. in revised form in TCE; trans. Catalan, French, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese
    •  149   Contribution to John Jolliffe (ed.), Auberon Herbert: A Composite Portrait (Tisbury, 1976: Compton Russell), 9–14; repr. as ‘Auberon Herbert’ in PI
    •  150   ‘Comment on Professor Verene’s Paper’ [Donald Phillip Verene, ‘Vico’s Philosophy of Imagination’, Social Research 43 (1976), 410–26], Social Research 43 (1976), 426–9; repr. in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and others (eds), Vico and Contemporary Thought (London, 1976: Macmillan); trans. Spanish
    •  150a   ‘Go there to find your identity’, Jewish Chronicle, 16 April 1974, supplement on 50th anniversary of the Friends of the Hebrew University, i–ii
    •  151   Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 62 (1976), 85–94
    •  152   ‘Vico and the Ideal of the Enlightenment’, Social Research 43 (1976), 640–53; repr. in Giorgio Tagliacozzo and others (eds), Vico and Contemporary Thought (London, 1976: Macmillan), and in AC without last section, ‘The Workings of Providence’; trans. Italian, Polish, Spanish
    • 152a   Letter dated 11 July 1973 to Douglas Villiers, in Douglas Villiers (ed.), Next Year in Jerusalem: Jews in the Twentieth Century (New York, 1976: Viking; London, 1976, Harrap), 106 (a response to Arthur Koestler, ‘The Vital Choice’, ibid., 98–105)
    • 152b   ‘Vico’s Doctrines’ (letter), History Today 26 (1976), 829–30

     1977

    •  153   Sir Harry d’Avigdor Goldsmid, 1906–1976 ([London, 1977]: privately printed), 6 pp.
    •  153a  Contribution to Mstislav Rostropovich: 50th Birthday Gala Concert, concert programme for Rostropovich’s 50th birthday concert at the Royal Festival Hall, 6 March 1977
    •  154   ‘Hume and the Sources of German Anti-Rationalism’, in G. P. Morice (ed.), David Hume: Bicentennial Papers (Edinburgh, 1977: Edinburgh University Press), 93–116; repr. in AC
    •  155   ‘Old Russia’, review of Marvin Lyons, Russia in Original Photographs 1860–1920, ed. Andrew Wheatcroft, and Kyril Fitzlyon and Tatiana Browning, Before the Revolution: A View of Russia under the Last Tsar, Guardian, 24 November 1977, 14
    •  156   Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 63 (1977), 1–11


     1978

    •  157   Russian Thinkers, ed. Henry Hardy and Aileen Kelly, with an introduction by Aileen Kelly (London, 1978: Hogarth Press; New York, 1978: Viking; Harmondsworth and New York, 1979: Penguin) (reprints of 30, 44, 56, 57, 76, 82, 125); trans. Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese (in part), Polish, Portuguese, Spanish
    •  158   Concepts and Categories: Philosophical Essays, ed. Henry Hardy, with an introduction by Bernard Williams (London, 1978: Hogarth Press; New York, 1979: Viking; Oxford, 1980: Oxford University Press; New York, 1981: Penguin; Princeton, 2000: Princeton University Press) (reprints of 25, 35, 36, 64, 77, 81, 85, 93); trans. Italian, Japanese (in part), Spanish
    •  159   Decline of Utopian Ideas in the West ([Tokyo], 1978: Japan Foundation), 20 pp.; repr. in J. M. Porter and Richard Vernon (eds), Unity, Plurality and Politics: Essays in Honour of F. M. Barnard (London and Sydney, 1986: Croom Helm), and CTH; trans. Arabic, Italian, Japanese, Lithuanian, Polish, Spanish
    •  160   Introduction to Derek Hill: Portraits (London, 1978: Marlborough Fine Art), 3
    •  160a   ‘Comments’ (on Abraham Kaplan, ‘Historical Interpretation’, in the same volume), in Yirmiahu Yovel (ed.), Philosophy of History and Action (Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1978: Reidel; Jerusalem, 1978: Magnes Press, The Hebrew University), 38–40
    •  160b   ‘Marx’s Kapital and Darwin’, Journal of the History of Ideas 39 (1978), 519 (abstract in the Philosopher’s Index 12 (1978), 234)
    •  161   ‘El nacionalismo: descuido del pasado y poder actual’, Diálogos 14 No 6 (November/December 1978), 10–17; original English version, ‘Nationalism: Past Neglect and Present Power’, published in Partisan Review 46 (1979), 337–58, AC and PSM; trans. Bulgarian, Catalan, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian
    •  161a   (with others) ‘Is a Philosophy of History Possible?’, in Yirmiahu Yovel (ed.), Philosophy of History and Action (Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1978: Reidel; Jerusalem, 1978: Magnes Press, The Hebrew University), 219–40
    •  162   Presidential Address, Proceedings of the British Academy 64 (1978), 1–9
    •  163   ‘Corsi e Ricorsi’, review of Giorgio Tagliacozzo and Donald Phillip Verene (eds), Giambattista Vico’s Science of Humanity, Journal of Modern History 50 (1978), 480–9
    •  164   ‘Tolstoy Remembered’, review of Tatyana Tolstoy, Tolstoy Remembered, New Review 5 No 2 (Autumn 1978), 3–7
    •  165   ‘Mr Nicholas Nabokov’ (obituary), The Times, 15 April 1978, 16

    1979

    •  166   Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas, ed. and with a bibliography by Henry Hardy, with an introduction by Roger Hausheer (London, 1979: Hogarth Press; New York, 1980: Viking; Oxford, 1981: Oxford University Press; New York, 1982: Penguin; London, 1997: Pimlico; Princeton, 2001: Princeton University Press) (reprints of 58, 75, 108, 110, 114, 118, 121, 122, 134, 139, 152, 154, 161); trans. Catalan, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese (in part), Polish, Serbian, Spanish
    •  166a   ‘Einstein and Israel’, New York Review of Books, 8 November 1979, 13–18; repr. of major part of contribution to Gerald Holton and Yehuda Elkana (eds), Albert Einstein: Historical and Cultural Perspectives, the Centennial Symposium in Jerusalem (Princeton, 1982: Princeton University Press), 281–92; repr. in Anthology: Selected Essays from Thirty Years of The New York Review of Books ([New York, 1993]: New York Review of Books), and PI; trans. Hebrew, Russian
    •  166b   ‘Professor Scouten on Herder and Vico’, Comparative Literature Studies 16 (1979), 141–5
    •  166c   Note on Lydia Chukovsky, Notes about Anna Akhmatova, in ‘In absentia: Some Books of the Year’, Times Literary Supplement, 23 November 1979, 5
    •  166d   Letter to Adam Podgorecki (on the intelligentsia), in Adam Podgorecki and Maria Los, Multi-Dimensional Sociology (London, Boston and Henley, 1979: Routledge

    1980

    •  167   Personal Impressions, ed. Henry Hardy, with an introduction by Noel Annan (London, 1980: Hogarth Press; New York, 1981: Viking; Oxford, 1982: Oxford University Press; New York, 1982: Penguin) (reprints of 32, 51, 60, 70, 72, 92, 96, 104, 120, 133, 142, 149, 166a, together with 169); trans. Hebrew (in part), Italian (in part), Japanese (in part), Lithuanian, Portuguese, Spanish
      • 2nd ed. (London, 1998: Pimlico; Princeton, 2001: Princeton University Press), adding reprints of 172, 194a, 195, 198, 214; trans. Chinese, German
    •  168   Story in Pass the Port Again: The Best After-Dinner Stories of the Famous (London, 1980: Christian Brann), 21
    •  168a   ‘The Incompatibility of Values’, in Melvin Kranzberg (ed.), Ethics in an Age of Pervasive Technology (Boulder, 1980: Westview Press), 32–3
    •  168b   ‘Virtue and Practicality’, in Melvin Kranzberg (ed.), Ethics in an Age of Pervasive Technology (Boulder, 1980: Westview Press), 193
    •  169   ‘Meetings with Russian Writers in 1945 and 1956’, in PI; trans. French (in part), Spanish (in part), Russian
      •  Shortened version, ‘Conversations with Russian Poets’ (given as a Bowra Lecture), Times Literary Supplement, 31 October 1980, 1233–6, and (with additions, as ‘Conversations with Akhmatova and Pasternak’ (this version repr. in PSM and SM), New York Review of Books, 20 November 1980, 23–35; excerpted as ‘Anna Akhmatova: A Memoir’ in The Complete Poems of Anna Akhmatova, trans. Judith Hemschemeyer, ed. Roberta Reeder (Somerville, Massachusetts, 1990: Zephyr Press), vol. 2, and in the one-volume edition (Somerville, Massachusetts, 1992: Zephyr Press; 2nd. ed., Boston, Massachusetts, 1994: Zephyr Press; Edinburgh, 1994: Canongate Press); trans. Dutch, Hebrew, German, Polish
    •  170   ‘Note on Alleged Relativism in Eighteenth Century European Thought’, British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 3 (1980), 89–106; repr. with revisions in L. Pompa and W. H. Dray (eds), Substance and Form in History: A Collection of Essays in Philosophy of History (Edinburgh, 1981: University of Edinburgh Press), and CTH; trans. Italian, Polish
    •  171   ‘On Philosophy’, Good Book Guide 8 (Spring 1980), 10
    •  171a   ‘A Tribute to my Friend’ (on Jacob Talmon), Forum No 38 (Summer 1980), 1–4; trans. Hebrew
    •  172   ‘Upon Receiving the Jerusalem Prize’, Conservative Judaism 33 No 2 (Winter 1980), 14–17; repr. as ‘The Three Strands in My Life’, Jewish Quarterly 27 Nos 2–3 (Summer/Autumn 1979), 5–7; trans. Russian
    •  172a  Contribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 7 December 1980, Weekly Review, 33
    •  173   ‘The Hedgehog and the Fox Continued’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 9 October 1980, 44; cf. 44
    • 1981
    • 173a  For Teddy Kollek ([Jerusalem, 1981]: The Jerusalem Foundation), 7 pp.
    •  174   Introduction to H. G. Nicholas (ed.), Washington Despatches 1941–45: Weekly Political Reports from the British Embassy (London, 1981: Weidenfeld and Nicolson; Chicago, 1981: Chicago University Press), vii–xiv; repr. in L1
    •  175   Translation, with Introduction, of Ivan Turgenev, A Month in the Country (London, 1981: Hogarth Press; New York, 1982: Viking; Harmondsworth, 1983: Penguin)
    •  176   Reply to Hans Aarsleff, ‘Vico and Berlin’, London Review of Books, 5–18 November 1981, 7–8; letter, 3–16 June 1982, 5
    •  177   ‘Russian Thought and the Slavophile Controversy’, review of Andrzej Walicki, A History of Russian Thought (From the Enlightenment to Marxism) and The Slavophile Controversy, Slavonic and East European Review 59 (1981), 572–86; trans. Russian
    •  177a   Contribution to ‘Books of the Year: A Personal Choice’, Observer, 6 December 1981, 25
    •  177b  ‘Plea for a Library’ (letter), Jewish Chronicle, 25 December 1981, 16

    1982

    •  178   ‘A Letter from Sir Isaiah Berlin’, Intellectual History No 1 (November 1982), 3
    •  179   ‘Mrs Salome Halpern’ (obituary), The Times, 17 May 1982, 12
    •  180   ‘Prof. Roman Jakobson’ (supplementary obituary), The Times, 31 July 1982, 10

    1983

    •  181   ‘Giambattista Vico and Cultural History’, in Leigh S. Cauman and others (eds), How Many Questions? Essays in Honor of Sidney Morgenbesser (Indianapolis, 1983: Hackett), 474–97; repr. in CTH; trans. Polish, Russian
    •  181a   ‘The Conscience of Israel’ (in Hebrew translation), tribute to Yishayahu Leibowitz, Ha’aretz, 4 March 1983, 8
    • 181b   ‘Maynard and Lydia Keynes’, in Milo Keynes (ed.), Lydia Lopokova (London, 1983: Weidenfeld and Nicolson), 170–3
    •  182   ‘The Gentle Genius’, review of Turgenev’s Letters, selected, trans. and ed. A. V. Knowles, New York Review of Books, 27 October 1983, 23–33
    •  183   ‘Isaiah Berlin et le progrès’ (letter), Le Monde Dimanche, 3 July 1983, ii
    •  184   ‘Reply to Robert Kocis’, Political Studies 31 (1983), 388–93
    •  184a  Contribution to ‘Books of the Year’, Sunday Times, 11 December 1983, 39
    •  184b   (with others) ‘Charges Against KOR Repudiated’ (letter), The Times, 2 March 1983, 13
    •  184c   Contribution to Linda Sternberg Katz and Bill Katz, Writer’s Choice: A Library of Rediscoveries (Reston, Virginia, 1983: Reston Publishing Company), 7

    1984

    •  185   ‘A New Woman in Russia’, review of John Carswell, The Exile: A Life of Ivy Litvinov, Sunday Times, 6 May 1984, 41
    •  186   ‘Mozart at Glyndebourne Half a Century Ago’, in John Higgins (ed.), Glyndebourne: A Celebration (London, 1984: Cape), 101–9
    •  187   Foreword to Sir Immanuel Jakobovits, ‘If Only My People....’: Zionism in My Life (London, 1984: Weidenfeld and Nicolson), ix
    •  188   Tribute to Sir Hugh Casson, RA (the magazine for the Friends of the Royal Academy) No 5 (December 1984), 27

    1985

    •  188a   ‘Nahum Goldmann (1895–1982): A Personal Impression’, in William Frankel (ed.), Survey of Jewish Affairs 1983 (Rutherford/ Madison/Teaneck, 1985: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press; London/Toronto, 1985: Associated University Presses), 238–43; excerpted in Jewish Chronicle, 5 July 1985
    •  189   ‘On Vico’ (reply to Zagorin), Philosophical Quarterly 35 (1985), 281–90 (abstract in the Philosopher’s Index 19 (1985), 246)
    •  189a   Contribution to ‘Terence Cornelius Farmer Prittie, 15 December 1913 – 28 May 1985, In Memoriam’, Britain & Israel, August 1985, [1]
    • 189b   Foreword to Neil Cornwell, The Life, Times and Milieu of V. F. Odoyevsky 1804–1869 (London, 1986: Athlone Press), ix–x

    1986

    •  190   ‘The Cost of Curing an Oyster’, Jerusalem Post, 10 February 1986, 8; trans. Russian (in part)
    •  191   ‘Martin Cooper: In Memoriam’, in programme for memorial concert by Lindsay String Quartet, 29 June 1986, 2 pp.; repr. as Foreword to Martin Cooper, Judgements of Value: Selected Writings on Music, ed. Dominic Cooper (Oxford, 1988: Oxford University Press)
    •  192   ‘Memories of Brief Meetings with Ben-Gurion’, Jewish Quarterly 33 (1986) No 3 (123), 6–9
    •  192a   ‘A Personal Tribute to Adam von Trott (Balliol 1931)’, Balliol College Annual Record 1986, 61–2
    •  192b   ‘A Personal View of Super-Titles’, in Glyndebourne Touring Opera 1986 (programme) ([Glyndebourne, 1986: Glyndebourne Festival Opera]), 54–6; repr. in About The House 7 No 8 (Spring 1987), 8–9, Translation Ireland 15 No 1 (Spring 2001), 14–15, and as ‘Titlemania: A Voice in Favor’ in Opera News 54 No 16 (May 1990), 6–7
    •  192c   ‘On Yitzhak Sadeh’ (in Hebrew translation), Davar, 5 September 1986, 17; incorporated into 214; trans. Russian
    •  193   Entry on J. P. Plamenatz in Lord Blake and C. S. Nicholls (eds), The Dictionary of National Biography 1971–1980 (Oxford, 1986: Oxford University Press), 671–3
    •  193a  (with others) ‘Polish-Jewish Studies’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 30 January 1986, 44
    •  194   Contribution to ‘Greetings’, Secular Humanistic Judaism No 1 (February 1986), 2
    •  194b   Foreword to Neil Cornwell, The Life, Times and Milieu of V. F. Odoyevsky 1804–1869 (London, 1986: Athlone Press), ix–x

    1987

    • 194a   ‘David Cecil (1902–1986)’, in Reports for 1985–86 and 1986–87 (List of Fellows and Members for 1987) (London, [1987]: Royal Society of Literature), 34–41; repr. in Hannah Cranborne (ed.), David Cecil: A Portrait by his Friends (Stanbridge, 1990: Dovecote Press) (as ‘A Close Colleague’s Assessment’) and in PI (2nd ed.)
    •  195   ‘Edmund Wilson at Oxford’, Yale Review 76 (1987), 139–51; repr. in New York Times Book Review, 12 April 1987, 1, 40–2 (in part), Kai Erikson (ed.), Encounters (New Haven/London, 1989: Yale University Press), Guardian, 12 October 1989, 25, 47, John Patrick Diggins (ed.), The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., and the Challenge of the American Past (Princeton, 1997: Princeton University Press), and PI (2nd ed.); trans. Italian, Spanish
    • 195a   Contribution to ‘Books of the Year: Who read what in 1987?’, Sunday Times, 29 November 1987, Books, 14

    1988

    •  195a   Foreword to Ada Rapoport-Albert and Steven J. Zipperstein (eds), Jewish History: Essays in Honour of Chimen Abramsky (London, 1988: Peter Halban), ix
    •  196   On the Pursuit of the Ideal (Turin, 1988: Giovanni Agnelli Foundation), 16 pp.; repr. in New York Review of Books, 17 March 1988, 11–18, CTH and PSM; excerpted as ‘The Idea of Pluralism’ in Walter Truett Anderson (ed.), The Truth about the Truth: De-confusing and Re-constructing the Postmodern World (New York, 1995: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam; retitled The Fontana Postmodernism Reader, London, 1996: Fontana Press); trans. Arabic, Estonian, French, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, Spanish (in part)
    •  197   ‘Dorothy de Rothschild’ (obituary), Independent, 12 December 1988, 28
    •  197a   ‘Israeli Solution’ (letter), Independent, 28 September 1988, 19
    •  197b   ‘Wybór listów od Isaiaha Berlina’ (letters to Beata Polanowska-Sygulska, translated into Polish, with commentary by the recipient), in Beata Polanowska-Sygulska, Filozofia wolnosci Isaiaha Berlina (Krakow, 1988: Wydawnictwo Znak), 170–206

    1989

      198   ‘Writers Remembered: Virginia Woolf’, The Author 100 (1989), 96–7; repr. in PI (2nd ed.)

      198a  Foreword to Anatoly Nayman, Remembering Anna Akhmatova, trans. Wendy Rosslyn (London, 1989, Peter Halban), vii

     198b  Contribution to Academy of St Martin in the Fields 1959–1989, 30th anniversary booklet (London, 1989: Academy of St Martin in the Fields)

    1990

    •  199   The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 1990: John Murray; New York, 1991: Knopf; London, 1991: Fontana Press; New York, 1992: Vintage Books; Princeton, 1997: Princeton University Press) (reprints of 73, 128, 159, 170, 181, 196, together with 200 and the original English version of 143); trans. Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish
    •  200   ‘Joseph de Maistre and the Origins of Fascism’, in CTH, 91–174; repr. in slightly shortened form in New York Review of Books, 27 September 1990, 57–64, 11 October 1990, 54–8, 25 October 1990, 61–5; trans. Polish, Russian, Spanish (in part)
    •  200a  Contribution to The Evolution of the Symphony Orchestra: History, Problems and Agenda (London, 1990: Weidenfeld and Nicolson), 123–5
    •  200b Contribution to Robert B. Silvers ([New York], 1990: The New York Review of Books)
    •  201  Contribution to ‘The State of Europe: Christmas Eve 1989’ in Granta 30 (Winter 1990) [New Europe!], 148–50; repr. in the Guardian, 20 February 1990, 19; repr. in Twenty-One: The Best of Granta Magazine (London and New York, 2001: Granta Books) and as ‘The Survival of the Russian Intelligentsia’ in SM; trans. German, Italian
    •  201a  Contribution (on Mozart) to Vita (published by Merian) 1 No 1 (October 1990), 16
    •  201b  Contribution to programme insert on Garrett Drogheda ([London, 1990: Royal Opera House])
    •  201c  (with others) ‘An Open Letter On Anti-Armenian Pogroms in the Soviet Union’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 27 September 1990, 66
    •  202   Letter on Boris Pasternak, Times Literary Supplement, 16–22 February 1990, 171
    •  202a  Reply to letter on Herder, New York Review of Books, 20 December 1990, 78

    1991

    • 203   ‘Der Vetter aus Oxford’ (Yehudi Menuhin), in Jutta Schall-Emden (ed.), Weder Pauken noch Trompeten: Für Yehudi Menuhin (Munich/Zurich, 1991: Piper), 30–3
    • 203a  Letter to Antonio Verri, in Antonio Verri (ed.), Vico e il pensiero contemporaneo (Lecce, [1991]: Milella), vi–vii
    • 203b  (with others) ‘The Detention of Sari Nusseibeh’ (letter), Independent, 4 February 1991, 18
    • 203c  (with others) ‘The Detention of Sari Nusseibeh’ (letter), New York Review of Books, 7 March 1991, 4
    • 203d  ‘Position on the Chair’ (letter), Observer, 23 June 1991, 42

    1992

    •  203e   ‘Alexander and Salome Halpern’ (in Russian translation), in a Russian collection: Mikhail Parkhomovsky (ed.), Jews in the Culture of Russia Abroad: Collected Articles, Publications, Memoirs and Essays, No 1, 1919–1939 (Jerusalem, 1992: M. Parkhomovsky), 229–41; repr. in Mikhail Parkhomovsky and Andrey Rogachevsky (eds), Russian Jews in Great Britain: Articles, Publications, Memoirs and Essays [Russian Jewry Abroad, vol. 2] (Jerusalem, 2000: Mikhail Parkhomovsky); abstract: ‘These are Berlin’s memoirs about Salomea Andronikova, one of the prominent figures in a pre-revolutionary circle of Russian poets, artists and musicians, about her husband Alexander Halpern, a lawyer and a Zionist, and about Anna (Niouta) Kalina, an art critic and radio journalist who lived with the Halperns in their London home.’
    •  204   ‘Reply to Ronald H. McKinney, “Towards a Postmodern Ethics: Sir Isaiah Berlin and John Caputo” [Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1992), 395–407]’, Journal of Value Inquiry 26 (1992), 557–60
    •  205   Introduction to Founders and Followers: Literary Lectures given on the occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Founding of the London Library (London, 1992: Sinclair-Stevenson), xi–xv
    •  206   Introduction to programme for concert given to celebrate the inauguration of Israel’s new Supreme Court Building, November 1992, 2 pp.
    •  207   Letters to Conor Cruise O’Brien in Conor Cruise O’Brien, The Great Melody: A Thematic Biography and Commented Anthology of Edmund Burke (London, 1992: Sinclair Stevenson), 612–15, 617–18
    •  208   ‘Mixing It’ (letter), Oxford Magazine, Noughth Week, Hilary Term 1992, 8
    •  209   ‘No Trace of Roguery’ (letter), Spectator, 11 January 1992, 22
    •  209a  (unattributed) ‘Professor H. L. A. Hart’ (obituary), The Times, 24 December 1992, 13
    •  210   Contribution to feature on the literary canon, Times Higher Education Supplement, 24 January 1992, 16
    •  211   Appreciation of David Patterson, Centre Piece [Newsletter of the Oxford Centre for Postgraduate Hebrew Studies] No 10 (November 1992), 2

    1993

    •  212   The Magus of the North: J. G. Hamann and the Origins of Modern Irrationalism, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 1993: John Murray; New York, 1994: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; London, 1994: Fontana Press); excerpted as ‘The Magus of the North’ in New York Review of Books, 21 October 1993, 64–71 (letter, 18 November 1993, 68); repr. in TCE with Foreword to the German edition; trans. French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Spanish; excerpt trans. French, German, Italian, Spanish
    •  212a  England’s Mistaken Moralist’ (G. E. Moore in Principia Ethica), contribution to ‘Speaking Volumes’, Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 October 1993, 20
    •  213   ‘A Reply to David West’, Political Studies 41 (1993), 297–8
    •  214   ‘Yitzhak Sadeh’, Midstream 39 No 4 (May 1993), 20–24; repr. in PI (2nd ed.); trans. Russian; cf. 192c
    •  215   Contribution to Sir Isaiah Berlin and others, Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart 1907–1992: Speeches Delivered at Memorial Ceremony on 6 February 1993 ([Oxford, 1993]: privately printed), 1–8; repr. in Jenifer Hart, Ask Me No More: An Autobiography (London, 1998: Peter Halban); trans. Japanese
    • 215a  Contribution (on books read during 1992) to Misuzu 35 No 1 (January 1993), 49
    • 215b  Contribution to tenth anniversary CD booklet for Music at Oxford ([Oxford, 1993: Music at Oxford])

    1994

    •  216   ‘La rivoluzione romantica: una crisi nella storia del pensiero moderno’, in Isaiah Berlin, Tra la filosofia e la storia delle idee: intervista autobiografica, ed. Steven Lukes (Florence, 1994: Ponte alle Grazie), 97–122; original English version, ‘The Romantic Revolution: A Crisis in the History of Modern Thought’, published in SR and trans. Dutch, German
    •  217   (with Bernard Williams) ‘Pluralism and Liberalism: A Reply’ (to George Crowder, ‘Pluralism and Liberalism’, Political Studies 42 (1994), 293–303), Political Studies 42 (1994), 306–9
    •  218   Introduction to Joseph de Maistre, Considerations on France, ed. Richard A. Lebrun (Cambridge, 1994: Cambridge University Press), xi–xxxiv
    •  219   Introduction to James Tully (ed.), Philosophy in an Age of Pluralism: The Philosophy of Charles Taylor in Question (Cambridge etc., 1994: Cambridge University Press), 1–3
    •  220   Contribution to Brian Harrison (ed.), Corpuscles: A history of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, in the twentieth century, written by its members (Oxford, 1994: Corpus Christi College), 44–50
    •  220a  Contribution to ‘Brushes with Genius’ (meetings with Picasso), Independent on Sunday, 6 February 1994, Sunday Review, 25
    •  220b  Contribution to ‘Classics of Our Time’, Sunday Telegraph, 2 January 1994, Review, 8
    •  220c  Contribution to ‘Referred Pleasures: Fifteen writers celebrate their favourite reference books’, Times Literary Supplement, 22 April 1994, 13
    •  220d  Tribute to Sir Neville Marriner, in souvenir programme for his 70th birthday concert, 5 April 1994, Royal Festival Hall (London, 1994: Academy of St Martin in the Fields)

    1995

    •  221   Liberty’, in Ted Honderich (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford, 1995: Oxford University Press), 485–7; repr. in POI and L
    •  222   Contribution to ‘Remembering Stephen’ (a tribute to Stephen Spender), Index on Censorship 25 No 5 (October 1995), 10–11, 13–14
    •  222a  (with Andrzej Walicki) ‘Sir Isaiah Berlin do Andrzeja Walickiego’ (letters from IB to AW, translated by Magda Pietrzak-Merta and Tomasz Merta, with comments by AW), Res Publica 82/83 (double issue, July/August 1995), 101–116
    •  223   (with Robert Grant) ‘Tolstoy and Enlightenment: An Exchange’, Oyster Club No 6 (Spring/Summer 1995), 13–16
    •  224   ‘Nin Ryan’ (obituary), Independent, 10 February 1995, 16
    •  225   Foreword to ‘... from the fruits of her labour she planted a vineyard.’, Essays on the Role of Private Philanthropy in Israel to Mark the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Dorothy de Rothschild, 7 March 1995 ([Jerusalem], 1995: Yad Hanadiv), 9–10
    •  226   Contribution (on Boris Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago) to ‘On the Shelf’, Sunday Times, 7 November 1995, section 7 (‘Books’), 9

    1996

    •  227   The Sense of Reality: Studies in Ideas and their History, ed. Henry Hardy, with an introduction by Patrick Gardiner (London, 1996: Chatto and Windus; New York, 1997: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; London, 1997: Pimlico) (a revised reprint of 38 together with the original English version of 216 and seven other previously unpublished essays, 228 and 230–5); trans. Chinese, French, German, Hebrew, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish
    •  228   ‘Artistic Commitment: A Russian Legacy’, in SR, 194–231; trans. Russian
    •  229   Berlin’, in Thomas Mautner (ed.), A Dictionary of Philosophy (Oxford, 1996: Blackwell; reissued with revisions as The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy, London etc. 1997: Penguin), 51–2 (Penguin, 67–9)
    •  230   ‘Kant as an Unfamiliar Source of Nationalism’, in SR, 232–48
    •  231   ‘Marxism and the International in the Nineteenth Century’, in SR, 116–67; trans. Russian
    •  232   ‘Philosophy and Government Repression’, in SR, 54–76
    •  233   ‘Political Judgement’, in SR, 40–53; repr. as ‘On Political Judgement’ in New York Review of Books, 3 October 1996, 26–30; trans. German, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish
    •  234   ‘Rabindranath Tagore and the Consciousness of Nationality’, in SR, 249–66
    •  235   ‘The Sense of Reality’, in SR, 1–39; trans. Italian, Russian
    •  236   Supplementary obituary note on Lydia Chukovskaya, Guardian, 9 February 1996, 13
    •  236a  ‘A Flick back’ (letter), Guardian, 21 March 1996, 18
    •  236b  ‘No smoking in class’ (letter), Sunday Telegraph, 2 June 1996, 30
    •  236c  (with others) ‘Solidarity with Turkish Writers’ (letter), Independent, 31 May 1996, 17

    1997

    •  237   The Proper Study of Mankind: An Anthology of Essays, ed. Henry Hardy and Roger Hausheer, with a foreword by Noel Annan and an introduction by Roger Hausheer (London, 1997: Chatto and Windus; New York, 1998: Farrar, Straus and Giroux; London, 1998: Pimlico) (reprints of 32, 44, 54, 60, 71, 77, 81, 93, 98, 108, 122, 134, 139, 143, 161, 169 (New York Review of Books version) and 196, with a concise bibliography of Isaiah Berlin’s writings by Henry Hardy); trans. Bosniac, Bulgarian (in part), Catalan, Croatian (in part), Finnish (in part), Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Spanish
    • 237a   ‘Literature and Art in the RSFSR’ (1945) (Russian Translation of part of ‘A Note on Literature and the Arts in the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in the closing months of 1945’, in Public Record Office FO 371/56725), Kulisa NG [supplement to Nezavisimaya gazeta] No 2 (December 1997), 4–5; English original published (with one passage cut) as ‘The Arts in Russia under Stalin’, New York Review of Books, 19 October 2000, 54–63, and (in full) in SM; trans. Italian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish (in part)
    • 237b   ‘Sir Thomas Armstrong (1898–1994)’, in Christ Church 1996 [Oxford, 1997: Christ Church], 72–3
    •  238   Contribution to ‘Books of the Century’, Sunday Telegraph, 9 February 1997, Sunday Review, 12
    •  238a  Contribution (on his favourite images) to RA (The Royal Academy Magazine) No 57 (Winter 1997), 62
    •  239   Letters to Rocco Pezzimenti in Rocco Pezzimenti, The Open Society and its Friends, with letters from Isaiah Berlin and the late Karl R. Popper (Leominster/Rome, 1997: Gracewing/Millennium Romae), 173–8, 182–4

    1998

    • 240   ‘My Intellectual Path’ (with 241, under the joint title ‘The First and the Last’), New York Review of Books, 14 May 1988, 53–60; repr. in The First and the Last (New York, 1999: New York Review of Books; London, 1999: Granta), POI and L (in part); trans. Catalan, Italian, Spanish, Vietnamese
    • 241   ‘The Purpose Justifies the Ways’ (1922) (with 240, under the joint title ‘The First and the Last’), New York Review of Books, 14 May 1988, 52–3; repr. in Du, December 1988, 22–4, The First and the Last (New York, 1999, New York Review of Books; London, 1999: Granta) and L; trans. Catalan, German, Italian, Spanish, Vietnamese 
    • 241a  ‘A Turning-Point in Political Thought’, Common Knowledge 7 No 3 (Winter 1998), 186–214; repr. in L as ‘The Birth of Greek Individualism: A Turning-Point in the History of Political Thought’; trans Spanish
    • 242   Foreword to Jenifer Hart, Ask Me No More: An Autobiography (London, 1998: Peter Halban), xi–xviii
    • 242a  (with Fred S. Worms) ‘From Abraham to Washington: Extracts from an Unpublished Correspondence’, Jewish Quarterly 45 (1998/9) No 4 (172), 32–6; repr. as ‘Zionism and Sir Isaiah Berlin’ in Ariel: The Israel Review of Arts and Letters 110 (1999), 47–54
    • 242b  ‘A Letter to Elizabeth Bowen’ (1933), Oxford Magazine 156 (Eighth Week, Trinity Term, 1998), 8–9

    1999

    • 243   The Roots of Romanticism, the A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1965, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 1999: Chatto and Windus; Princeton, 1999: Princeton University Press; London, 2000: Pimlico); trans. Dutch, German, Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Spanish, Turkish
    • 244   ‘La reputacion de Vico’, trans. by Enrique Bocardo Crespo of review of Peter Burke, Vico, in Pablo Badillo O’Farrell and Enrique Bocardo Crespo (eds), Isaiah Berlin: la mirada despierta de la historia (Madrid, 1999: Tecnos); original English version, ‘The Reputation of Vico’, published in New Vico Studies 17 (1999), 1–5

    2000

    • 245   The Power of Ideas, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 2000: Chatto and Windus; Princeton, 2000: Princeton University Press; London, 2001, Pimlico) (reprints of 27, 43, 52, 54a, 55, 62, 63, 65, 78, 85, 102, 103, 111, 113, 115, 127, 221, 240, together with 248); trans. German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish
    • 246   Three Critics of the Enlightenment: Vico, Hamann, Herder, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 2000: Pimlico; Princeton, 2000: Princeton University Press) (reprints of 148, with revisions to the Vico material, and 212, with the English original of the Foreword to the German edition); trans. Chinese, Greek
    • 247   ‘Herzen: A Preacher of the Truth’, in Giovanna Calebich Creazza, Aleksandr Ivanovic Herzen: profezia e tradizione (Naples, 2000: CUEN), 39–40
    • 248   ‘The Search for Status’ (talk based on part of 71), in POI, 195–9
    • 249   Letter to Anand Chandavarkar on Keynes and anti-Semitism, in Anand Chandavarkar, ‘Was Keynes anti-Semitic?’, Economic and Political Weekly, 6 May 2000, 1619–24, at 1623

    2001

    • 250   ‘A Visit to Leningrad’ (1945), Times Literary Supplement, 23 March 2001, 13–15; repr. in SM; trans. Italian
    • 250a  ‘A Sense of Impending Doom’ (1935; original title ‘Literature and the Crisis’), Times Literary Supplement, 27 July 2001, 11–12
    • 250b  ‘The State of Psychology in 1936’ (1936), History and Philosophy of Psychology 3 No 1 (2001), 76–83
    • 250c  ‘Notes on Prejudice’ (1981), New York Review of Books, 18 October 2001, 12; repr. in L, in Robert B. Silvers and Barbara Epstein (eds), Striking Terror: America’s New War (New York, 2002: New York Review Books), and, as ‘Notes on Prejudice and Fanaticism’, Australian Financial Review, 12 October 2001, Review section, 4; trans. Italian, Japanese, Spanish, Swedish
    • 250d  Letter (23 January 1959) included (in Hebrew translation) in Eliezer Ben-Refael (ed.), Zehuyot Yehudiyot: Teshuvut Hakhmei Yisrael le-Ben Gurion [‘Jewish Identities: Fifty Intellectuals Answer Ben-Gurion’] (Sede Boqer, 2001: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press), 160–6

    2002

    • 251   Freedom and its Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty (1952), ed. Henry Hardy (London, 2002: Chatto & Windus; Princeton, 2002: Princeton University Press); lecture on Helvétius excerpted as ‘The Art of Being Ruled: Helvétius, Happiness and the Scientists’, The Times Literary Supplement, 15 February 2002, 14–16; lecture on Saint-Simon excerpted and abridged as ‘Henri de Saint-Simon’, Romulus, June 2002, 16–21; trans. Chinese, Spanish, Italian
    • 252   Liberty, ed. Henry Hardy, with an essay on Berlin and his critics by Ian Harris (Oxford and New York, 2002: Oxford University Press) (253, with other writings on liberty: reprints of 221, 241a, 240 [excerpts], 241 and 250c, together with 254); trans. Chinese, Spanish
    • 253   ‘Five Essays on Liberty’, ed. Henry Hardy (second edition of 112, with reprint of 93 added), in L
    • 254   A Letter to George Kennan (1951), in L; repr. as ‘A Letter to George Kennan: On Human Dignity’, New Republic, 28 January 2002, 23–6

    2003

    • 254a  ‘Isaiah Berlin aan Marion en Felix Frankfurter’ (letter of 7–8 December 1934), trans. into Dutch by Jan Willem Reitsma, Nexus 37 (2003), 177–85

     2004

    • 255   Flourishing: Letters 19281946, ed. Henry Hardy (London, 2004: Chatto & Windus); published in the USA as Letters 1928–1946 (New York, 2004: Cambridge University Press)
    • 256   The Soviet Mind: Russian Culture under Communism, ed. Henry Hardy, with a foreword by Strobe Talbott (Washington, 2004: Brookings Institution Press)
    • 257   ‘Boris Pasternak’ (1958), in SM, 85–89
    • 258   ‘Four Weeks in the Soviet Union’ (1956), in SM, 119–129
    • 258a  ‘Freedom’ (1928), in L1
    • 258b  ‘A Letter on Human Nature’ (1986), letter to Beata Polanowska-Sygulksa, New York Review of Books, 23 September 2004, 26
    • 259   ‘Why the Soviet Union Chooses to Insulate Itself’ (1946), in SM, 90–97
    • 260   ‘Woodrow Wilson on Education’ (1959), Oxford Magazine, No 225, Noughth Week, Trinity Term 2004, 3–8
    • 261   Contribution (written 1 March 1991) to Jean Moorcroft Wilson and Cecil Woolf (eds), Authors Take Sides on Iraq and the Gulf War (London, 2004: Cecil Woolf Publishers), 106–7
    • 262   (unattributed, and with posthumous revisions) ‘Sir Stuart Hampshire’ (obituary), The Times, 16 June 2004, 32 (56 in tabloid edition)
    •  263  Letter (28 June 1958) to Rowland Burdon Muller, in Lewis Owens, ‘ “Like a Chemist from Canada”: Shostakovich in Oxford 1958’, DSCH Journal No 21 (July 2004), 20–6, at 24–5
    •  264  (with Meyer Schapiro) ‘Isaiah Berlin and Meyer Schapiro: An Exchange’ (on Bernard Berenson: includes unsent letter from Berlin to Encounter, 21 January 1961, and letter from Berlin to Shapiro, 13 February 1961), Brooklyn Rail, September 2004, 14–15
    • 265   Letters to Andrzej Walicki in Andrzej WalickiRussia, Poland and Marxism: Isaiah Berlin to Andrzej Walicki 1962–1996 [Dialogue and Universalism 15 No 9–10/2005], 53–173

    2006 [forthcoming]

    • 266   Political Ideas in the Romantic Age: Their Rise and Influence on Modern Thought, ed. Henry Hardy, with an introduction by Joshua L. Cherniss (London, 2006: Chatto and Windus; Princeton, 2006: Princeton University Press)
    • 267  (with Beata Polanowska-Sygulska) Unfinished Dialogue (New York, 2006: Prometheus Books

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